Tuesday, March 3, 2015

Mitsubishi Navy Type 10 Carrier-borne Fighter.

Mitsubishi Navy Type 10 Carrier Fighter.

 Increased wing area was introduced on the second prototype of the 1MF1 fighter.

 First indigenous Japanese fighter built in quantity was the 1MF3, or Type 10-3

In February 1921 the Nagoya factory of Mitsubishi Nainenki Seizo KK (Mitsubishi Internal Combustion Engine Manufacturing Co Ltd), invited the former Sopwith engineer Herbert Smith, along with seven other former Sopwith engineers to assist the company in setting-up an aircraft design office to help design and manufacture military aircraft. The first effort of this new design team was the Navy Type 10 (the 10 signifying the 10th year of the Taisho dynasty, and the Japanese calendar year 2581, A D 1921) carrier-borne fighter for the Imperial Japanese Navy.

The first prototype aircraft, designated 1MF1 first appeared in October 1921, and was of wooden construction with fabric skinning, and was powered by a 300 hp Mitsubishi-built Hispano-Suiza eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine. The aircraft was delivered to the Provisional Naval Aeronautics Institution at Kasumigaura the following month. After flight testing, the aircraft was accepted by the Navy in the following month as the first fighter of indigenous design. The second prototype, the 1MF1A, embodied a 1.21 sq m (13 sq ft) increase in wing area, the 1MF2 had two-bay wings and increased tail area. All had honeycomb type frontal radiators. These three models made-up the Type 10-1 series of aircraft

The next model to appear was the 1MF3, which discarded the frontal honeycomb radiator in favour of Lamblin-type radiators fitted beneath the centre fuselage. The last mentioned version entered series production for the Imperial Japanese Navy as the Type 10-2 Carrier Fighter. the 1MF3 was followed by the 1MF4, which differed from the former in having the cockpit moved forward, stagger reduced by forward shift of the lower wing and redesign of the vertical tail surfaces. Some of these models had a larger wing cut-out over the pilot's head for ease of egress and better visibility. The 1MF5A, also of the Type 10-2 series, had an even larger wing for use a carrier fighter trainer. This model had torpedo-shaped floats beneath the lower wing along with a jettisonable undercarriage for alighting on the water in an emergency.

In October 1921, the first flight of the Type 10 Fighter was made by William Jordan, a former Flt. Lieut. with the RNAS, who joined Mitsubishi with the Smith team. Jordan made nine take-offs from and landings on the flight deck of the IJNS Hosho (Flying Phoenix) with the new fighter in December 1923. With satisfactory tests of the aircraft completed, carrier operations were begun. The first operational flights of the Type 10 from the Hosho were made by Lieut. Shunichi Kira on 16 March, 1923. Until then Sopwith Pups and Gloster Sparrowhawks imported from Great Britain had served as the Navy's standard deck fighters; the Type 10 was the world's first fighter designed specifically for carrier operations. They served with operational units from 1923 to 1930. Some were later released for civilian use.

Technical Data
Manufacturer: Mitsubishi Nainenki Seizo KK (Mitsubishi Internal Combustion Engine Manufacturing Co Ltd).
Type: Single-engined Carrier-borne fighter.
Crew (1): Pilot in open cockpit.
Powerplant: One 300 hp Mitsubishi built-Hispano-Suiza eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, drivng a two-blade wooden propeller.
Armament: Two fixed forward-firing 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-guns.
Dimensions: Span (1MF1 prototype) 9.296 m (30 ft 0 in), (1MF3, Type 10-2) 8.50 m (27 ft 10 1/2 in); length (1MF1 prototype) 6.706 m (22 ft), (1MF3, Type 10-2) 6.90 m (22 ft 7 1/2 in); height (1MF1 prototype) 2.946 m (9 ft 8 in), (1MF3, Type 10-2) 3.10 m (10 ft 2 in); wing area 27.68 sq m (297.954 sq ft).
Weights: Empty (1MF1 prototype) 790 kg (1.741 lb), (1MF3, Type 10-2) 940 kg (2,073 lb); loaded (1MF1 prototype) 1,140 kg (2,513 lb), (1MF3, Type 10-2) 1,280 kg (2,821 lb); wing loading (1MF1 prototype) 41.2 kg/sq m (8.438 lb/sq ft); power loading (1MF1 prototype) 3.8 kg/hp (8.3 lb/hp), (1MF3. Type 10-2) 4.27 kg/hp (9.4 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed (1MF1 prototype) 128 kt (147 mph), (1MF3, Type 10-2) 115 kt (132 mph); climb to 3,000 m (9,843 ft) in 10 min; service ceiling (1MF3, Type 10-2) 7,000 m (22,965 ft); endurance 2 1/2 hr.
Production: A total of 128 (including prototypes) were built by Mitsubishi Nainenki Seizo KK between October 1921 and December 1939.

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